Most Basic Git Commands with Examples

Basic GIT Commands

Need to learn some basic git commands? You came to the right place. Read on and find our handy note sheet that you can use as a daily reference.

Let’s get started!

Understanding GIT WorkFlow

git is the most widely used open-source VCs (version control system) that allows you to keep track of changes made to files. Businesses and programmers often use git to collaborate on software and application development.

The git project consists of three main parts: the working directory, the temporary area, and the git directory.

The working directory is where files are added, deleted, and edited. These changes are staged (indexed) in the staging area. After confirming the changes, a snapshot of the changes is saved in the git directory.

Everyone can use git as it works for Linux, Windows, Mac, and Solaris. The software may have a steep learning curve, but there are many tutorials ready to help you.

Basic GIT Commands

Here are some basic GIT commands you need to know:

  • git init will create a new local GIT repository. The following Git command will create a repository in the current directory:
git init
  • Alternatively, you can create a repository within a new directory by specifying the project name:
git init [project name]

  • git clone If the repository lies on a remote server, use:
git clone [email protected]:/path/to/repository

  • Conversely, run the following basic command to copy a local repository:
git clone /path/to/repository

  • git add

    is used to add files to the staging area. For example, the basic Git following command will index the temp.txt file:

git add <temp.txt>

  • git commit

    will create a snapshot of the changes and save it to the git directory.

git commit –m “Message to go with the commit here”

  • git config

    can be used to set user-specific configuration values like email, username, file format, and so on. To illustrate, the command for setting up an email will look like this:

git config --global user.email [email protected]

  • The global flag tells GIT that you’re going to use that email for all local repositories. If you want to use different emails for different repositories, use the command below:
git config --local user.email [email protected]

  • git status

    displays the list of changed files together with the files that are yet to be staged or committed.

git status

  • git push

    is used to send local commits to the master branch of the remote repository. Here’s the basic code structure:

git push origin <master>
  • Replace <master> with the branch where you want to push your changes when you’re not intending to push to the master branch.


  • git checkout

    creates branches and helps you to navigate between them. For example, the following basic command creates a new branch and automatically switches you to it:

command git checkout -b <branch-name>

  • To switch from one branch to another, simply use:
git checkout <branch-name>

  • git remote

    lets you view all remote repositories. The following command will list all connections along with their URLs:

git remote –v

  • To connect the local repository to a remote server, use the command below:
git remote add origin <host-or-remoteURL>
  • Meanwhile, the following command will delete a connection to a specified remote repository:
git remote rm <name-of-the-repository>

  • git branch

    will list, create, or delete branches. For instance, if you want to list all the branches present in the repository, the command should look like this:

git branch
  • If you want to delete a branch, use:
git branch –d <branch-name>

  • git pull

    merges all the changes present in the remote repository to the local working directory.

git pull

  • git merge

    is used to merge a branch into the active one.

git merge <branch-name>

  • git diff

    lists down conflicts. In order to view conflicts against the base file, use

git diff --base <file-name>
  • The following basic command is used to view the conflicts between branches before merging them:
git diff <source-branch> <target-branch>
  • To list down all the present conflicts, use:
git diff

  • git tag

    marks specific commits.  Developers usually use it to mark release points like v1.0 and v2.0.

git tag <insert-commitID-here>

  • git log

    Running the command will get you an output that looks like this:

commit 15f4b6c44b3c8344caasdac9e4be13246e21sadw
Author: Alex Hunter <[email protected]>
Date:   Mon Oct 1 12:56:29 2016 -0600

  • git reset

    The command will reset the index and the working directory to the last git commit’s state.

git reset --hard HEAD

  • git rm

    can be used to remove files from the index and the working directory.

git rm filename.txt

  • git stash

    That way, you can go back to that project later on.

git stash

  • git show

    is a command used to view information about any git object.

git show

  • git fetch

    allows users to fetch all objects from the remote repository that don’t currently reside in the local working directory.

git fetch origin

  • git ls-tree

    allows you to view a tree object along with the name, the mode of each item, and the blob’s SHA-1 value. Let’s say you want to see the HEAD, use:

git ls-tree HEAD

  • git cat-file

    is used to view the type and the size information of a repository object. Use the -p option along with the object’s SHA-1 value to view the information of a specific object, for example:

git cat-file –p d670460b4b4aece5915caf5c68d12f560a9fe3e4

  • git grep

    lets users search through committed trees, working directory, and staging area for specific phrases and words. To search for www.hostinger.com in all files, use:

git grep "www.hostinger.com"

  • gitk

    shows the graphical interface for a local repository. Simply run:

gitk

  • git instaweb

    allows you to browse your local repository in the git-web interface. For instance:

git instaweb –httpd=webrick

  • git gc 

    will clean unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.

git gc

  • git archive

    lets users create a zip or a tar file containing the constituents of a single repository tree. For instance:

git archive --format=tar master

  • git prune

    deletes objects that don’t have any incoming pointers.

git prune

  • git fsck 

    performs an integrity check of the git file system and identifies any corrupted objects.

git fsck

  • git rebase

    is used to apply certain changes from one branch to another. For instance:

git rebase master

Conclusion

Learning basic git commands will be useful for developers, as they can easily control the source code of the project. It may take some time to commit and remember all these commands, but I hope our git cheat sheet will help you.

Practice these commands and make the most of your development skills.

 

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