Basic GIT Commands
Need to learn some basic git commands? You came to the right place. Read on and find our handy note sheet that you can use as a daily reference.
Let’s get started!
Understanding GIT WorkFlow
git is the most widely used open-source VCs (version control system) that allows you to keep track of changes made to files. Businesses and programmers often use git to collaborate on software and application development.
The git project consists of three main parts: the working directory, the temporary area, and the git directory.
The working directory is where files are added, deleted, and edited. These changes are staged (indexed) in the staging area. After confirming the changes, a snapshot of the changes is saved in the git directory.
Everyone can use git as it works for Linux, Windows, Mac, and Solaris. The software may have a steep learning curve, but there are many tutorials ready to help you.
Basic GIT Commands
Here are some basic GIT commands you need to know:
- git init will create a new local GIT repository. The following Git command will create a repository in the current directory:
- Alternatively, you can create a repository within a new directory by specifying the project name:
git init [project name]
- git clone If the repository lies on a remote server, use:
git clone [email protected]:/path/to/repository
- Conversely, run the following basic command to copy a local repository:
git clone /path/to/repository
is used to add files to the staging area. For example, the basic Git following command will index the temp.txt file:
git add <temp.txt>
will create a snapshot of the changes and save it to the git directory.
git commit –m “Message to go with the commit here”
can be used to set user-specific configuration values like email, username, file format, and so on. To illustrate, the command for setting up an email will look like this:
git config --global user.email [email protected]
- The global flag tells GIT that you’re going to use that email for all local repositories. If you want to use different emails for different repositories, use the command below:
git config --local user.email [email protected]
displays the list of changed files together with the files that are yet to be staged or committed.
is used to send local commits to the master branch of the remote repository. Here’s the basic code structure:
git push origin <master>
Replace <master> with the branch where you want to push your changes when you’re not intending to push to the master branch.
creates branches and helps you to navigate between them. For example, the following basic command creates a new branch and automatically switches you to it:
command git checkout -b <branch-name>
- To switch from one branch to another, simply use:
git checkout <branch-name>
lets you view all remote repositories. The following command will list all connections along with their URLs:
git remote –v
- To connect the local repository to a remote server, use the command below:
git remote add origin <host-or-remoteURL>
- Meanwhile, the following command will delete a connection to a specified remote repository:
git remote rm <name-of-the-repository>
will list, create, or delete branches. For instance, if you want to list all the branches present in the repository, the command should look like this:
- If you want to delete a branch, use:
git branch –d <branch-name>
merges all the changes present in the remote repository to the local working directory.
is used to merge a branch into the active one.
git merge <branch-name>
lists down conflicts. In order to view conflicts against the base file, use
git diff --base <file-name>
- The following basic command is used to view the conflicts between branches before merging them:
git diff <source-branch> <target-branch>
- To list down all the present conflicts, use:
marks specific commits. Developers usually use it to mark release points like v1.0 and v2.0.
git tag <insert-commitID-here>
Running the command will get you an output that looks like this:
commit 15f4b6c44b3c8344caasdac9e4be13246e21sadw Author: Alex Hunter <[email protected]> Date: Mon Oct 1 12:56:29 2016 -0600
The command will reset the index and the working directory to the last git commit’s state.
git reset --hard HEAD
can be used to remove files from the index and the working directory.
git rm filename.txt
That way, you can go back to that project later on.
is a command used to view information about any git object.
allows users to fetch all objects from the remote repository that don’t currently reside in the local working directory.
git fetch origin
allows you to view a tree object along with the name, the mode of each item, and the blob’s SHA-1 value. Let’s say you want to see the HEAD, use:
git ls-tree HEAD
is used to view the type and the size information of a repository object. Use the -p option along with the object’s SHA-1 value to view the information of a specific object, for example:
git cat-file –p d670460b4b4aece5915caf5c68d12f560a9fe3e4
lets users search through committed trees, working directory, and staging area for specific phrases and words. To search for www.hostinger.com in all files, use:
git grep "www.hostinger.com"
shows the graphical interface for a local repository. Simply run:
allows you to browse your local repository in the git-web interface. For instance:
git instaweb –httpd=webrick
will clean unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.
lets users create a zip or a tar file containing the constituents of a single repository tree. For instance:
git archive --format=tar master
deletes objects that don’t have any incoming pointers.
performs an integrity check of the git file system and identifies any corrupted objects.
is used to apply certain changes from one branch to another. For instance:
git rebase master
Learning basic git commands will be useful for developers, as they can easily control the source code of the project. It may take some time to commit and remember all these commands, but I hope our git cheat sheet will help you.
Practice these commands and make the most of your development skills.